. . .

SANA GHAGARA

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Introduction

          Orissa, owing to its peculiar geographical location, topography and a wide range of physiognomic features is endowed with rich and varied plant resources. Till date, there is a recorded occurrence of about 2650 species of flowering plants and ferns from the state, though after exhaustive survey of under explored and unexplored regions, there may be many more additions to the existing compendium bringing the number to the close proximity of 3000. The vegetation of the state can broadly be classified to five major forest types and several subsidiary and seral types. However, the forest coverage of the state has undergone drastic reduction both in extent and density in the last few decades due to biotic interferences of various kinds and magnitudes. A recent census of the endangered and endemic flowering plants of the state revealed that about one hundred species come under the category of rare or vulnerable species needing immediate attention for study and conservation. Similarly, several wild- life habitats with rich biological diversities have been spotted out as endangered ecosystems. Under these circumstances both in situ and ex- situ conservation of plant genetic recourses come to attend pivotal importance.

          Government of Orissa in their endeavour to study and conserve the plant genetic resources of the State have established repositories of plants on regional basis taking into consideration the varied topography, climatic conditions and biological diversities. Regional Plant Resource Centre at Bhubaneswar and its sub- centres at Sana Ghagara ( Keonjhar ) and Nrusinghanath (Sambalpur ) are the attempts n this direction: Proposals to establish few other sub- centres at Kurli ( Koraput ), Chilika Lake ( Puri ) and one in the mangrove area near Bhitar Kanika/ Paradeep ( Cuttack ) are under consideration by the Government.

Top

 

 

 

 

 

 

General Information About Sana Ghagara

          Sana Ghagara is located in the Keonjhar district at a distance of about 08 K.Ms from Keonjhar town on the National Highway No.- 6 towards Sambalpur. The area is spread over 488 Ha. In a hilly tract with characteristic mixed deciduous and miscellaneous type of forest vegetation. The famous Sana Ghagara waterfall with perennial stream adds to the natural beauty of this forest tract and attracts large number of visitors throughout the year.

          It is located at an average elevation of 1950 ft. above M.S.L. and experiences a comparative cool summer and cold winter. Average annual rainfall is about 1500 mm and temperature ranges from 14.7 degree C to 41.1 degree C. Relative humidity varies between 41 to 93 % and normally no frosting occurs in this region. The area is an extremely undulating terrain with hills, pediments and a "V" shaped narrow valley. The hills and pediments are very steep and the rock formation is of dolerite origin. The area drains into river Baitarani through Machhakandana Nala.

Top

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Objectives

  1. Preservation of the habitat.
  2. Survey and assessment of the plant resources of the region
  3. Conservation of plant species including establishment of Seed Bank.
  4. Propagation of rare/ endemic and / or economic plants through conventional methods and tissue culture techniques.
  5. Introduction of suitable exotic and indigenous economic species and their evaluation.

Top

 

 

 

 

 

 

Vegetation

          The vegetation of the area can broadly be divided in to two categories, namely (i) mixed dry-deciduous forests and (ii) semi-evergreen forests. Major portion of the area is covered by a mixed dry type forest where Shorea robusta (Sal) dominates. The common associates are Diospyros melanoxylon, Cleistanthus collinus, Chloroxylon swietenia, Terminalia alata, Syzygium cumini, Ochna abtusata, Casearia elliptica, Cochlospermum religiosum, Olax psttacorum, Sterculia isora, Schleichera oleosa, Phyllanthus emblica etc. This type of vegetation is characterized by the dominance of large number of climbers and twiners of which mention may be made of Atylosia scarabaeoides, Hemidesmus indicus, Cryptolepis buchananlii, Cissampelos pariera, Abrus precatorius, Combretum rox-burghii, Bauhinia vahlii etc.

          Semi-evergreen type of forests is restricted to the stream banks and along the water courses. Species like Diospryros malabarica, Pongamia pinnata, Mangifera indica, Carallia brachiata, Ardisia solanacea, ficus retusa, Barringtonia acutanqula, Terminalia arjuna, Mallotus philippinensis etc. are fairly common in such type of plant communities. Climbers and twiners are represented by Schefflera venulosa, Pothos scandens, Millettia extensa, Uvaria hamiltonii, Scindapsus officinalis, Aganosma aryophyllata, Erycibe paniculata and many such others. The ground flora is very rich with a large number of herbaceous members of which species belonging to grass and sedge family dominate. Borraria articularis, Hyptis suaveolens, Ageratum conyzoides, Cassia tora, Lepidagathis incurva, sericocalyx scaber, Desmodium spp, Barleria strigosa, Lindernia parviflora etc. constitute the herbaceous cover in both of these vegetational types, besides a large number of sedges and grasses.

          The exposed rocks and crevices are ideal habitat for a large number of interesting lithophytes. Included in these are Sarcostemma lothophytes, Arides multiflora, Dysophylla quadrifolia, Hoya pendula, Bulbophyllum triste, Pholidota pallida, Dendrobium spp etc. Cymbidium aloefolium, Dendrobium formosum, Rhynchostylis retusa, Vanda tessellata, Saracanthus insectifier, acampe praeomorsa etc. are the orchidaceous elements found as epiphytes on large trees . There are also many other epiphytes like Pyrosia spp. Drynaria quercifolia, Viscum articulatum, Dendrophthoe falcate, Viscum monoicum, Scurula parasitica which deserve mention.

          Homonoia riparia is the typical rheophyte on stream beds which can tolerate the force of water currents. Along the water course, Pongamia pinnata, Terminalia arjuna, Barringtonia acutangula, Trewia nodifloar, Syzygium heyneanum are found in profusion. The muddy bank of the stream form microecological nitches for some interesting marsh/ swamp plants like Equisetum ramossisimum, Lasia spinosa, Crinum defixum, Ludwigia perennis, Flascopa scadens, Polygonum hydropipper etc.

          In the present survey, 514 species of flowering plants and ferns belonging to 106 families were collected from Sana Ghagara and its adjoining regions in different seasons of the year and the types of vegetation was analyzed. The plants were properly identified, processed and preserved in the herbarium of the Regional Plant Resource Centre, Bhubaneswar. In the enumeration, the families are arranged according to Bentham and Hooker's system of classification and the genera under a family and species under a genus follow an alphabetic sequence. For economy of space only the correct name of a species has been given.

Top

 

 

 

 

 

 

Enumeration Of Flowering Plants And Ferns
 
ANGIOSPERMS
DICOPYLEDONES (85 FAMILIES)
ANNONACEAE 6 species
MENISPERMACEAE 5 species
PAPAVERACEAE 1 specie
CAPPARACEAE 6 species
VIOLACEAE 1 specie
COCHLOSPERMACEAE 1 specie
FLACOURTIACEAE 2 species
PLOYGALACEAE 1 specie
CARYOPHYLLACEAE 2 species
PORTULACACEAE 2 species
CLUSIACEAE 1 specie
DIPTEROCARPACEAE 1 specie
MALVACEAE 10 species
STERCULIACEAE 7 species
TILIACEAE 5 species
LINACEAE 1 specie
MALPIGHIACEAE 2 species
ZYGOPHYLLACEAE 1 specie
OXALIDACEAE 2 species
RUTACEAE 9 species
SIMAROUBACEAE 1 specie
OCHNACEAE 1 specie
BURSERACEAE 1 specie
MELIACEAE 3 species
OLACACEAE 1 specie
OPILIACEAE 1 specie
CELASTRACEAE 2 species
RHAMNACEAE 4 species
VITACEAE 3 species
LEEACEAE 1 specie
SAPINDACEAE 5 species
ANACARDIACEAE 4 species
FABACEAE 38 species
CEASALPINIACEAE 10 species
MIMOSACEAE 6 species
RHIZOPHORACEAE 1 specie
COMBRETACEAE 7 species
MYRTACACEAE 2 species
LECYTHIDACEAE 2 species
MELASTOMATACEAE 2 species
LYTHRACEAE 4 species
ONAGRACEAE 2 species
PASSIFLORACEAE 1 specie
CUCURBITACEAE 4 species
BEGONIACEAE 1 specie
CACTACEAE 2 species
AIZOACEAE 4 species
APIACEAE 1 specie
ARALIACEAE 1 specie
ALANGIACEAE 1 specie
RUBIACEAE 22 species
ASTERACEAE 13 species
CAMPANULACEAE 1 specie
SPHENOCLEACEAE 1 specie
LOBELIACEAE 1 specie
MYRSINACEAE 2 species
SAPOTACEAE 3 species
EBENACEAE 4 species
OLEACEAE 3 species
APOCYNACEAE 8 species
ASCLEPIADACEAE 8 species
LOGANIACEAE 3 species
GNTIANACEAE 3 species
HYDROPHYLLACEAE 1 specie
BORAGINACEAE 4 species
CONVOLVULACEAE 12 species
SOLANACEAE 5 species
SCROPHULARIACEAE 10 species
BIGNONIACEAE 2 species
PEDALIACEAE 1 species
MARTYNIACEAE 1 specie
ACANTHACEAE 25 species
VERBENACEAE 8 species
LAMIACEAE 10 species
NYCTAGINACEAE 2 species
AMARANTHACEAE 10 species
POLLYGONNACEAE 2 species
ARISTOLOCHIACEAE 1 specie
PIPERCEAE 1 specie
LAURACEAE 3 species
LORANTHACEAE 4 species
EUTHORBIACEAE 29 species
URTICACEAE 5 species
ULMACEAE 2 species
MORACEAE 5 species
MONOCOTYLEDONS ( 15 FAMILIES )
ORCHIDACEAE 11 species
ZINGIBERACEAE 3 species
POSTACEAE 1 specie
AMARYLLIDACEAE 2 species
HYPOXIDACEAE 2 species
AGAVACEAE 1 specie
DIOSCOREACEAE 5 species
LILIACEAE 5 species
PONTEDERIACEAE 2 species
COMMELINACEAE 7 species
ARECACEAE 3 species
ARACEAE 5 species
ERIOCAULACEAE 1 species
CYPERACAE 11 species
POACEAE 47 species
PTERIDOPHYTES ( 6 FAMILIES )
SELAGINELLACEAE 1 specie
EQUISETACEAE 1 specie
DRYNARIACEAE 1 specie
LYGOVIACEAE 2 species
ADIANTACEAE 2 species
HEMIONITIDACEAE 1 specie

Top

~~*~~

<<<Back>>>

. . .